Habitual use of vitamin D supplements and risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection: a prospective study in UK Biobank
Previous studies have related vitamin D supplementation to a lower risk of acute respiratory tract infection. Emerging evidence suggests that vitamin D insufficiency is related to a higher risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) infection.
We aimed to investigate the prospective association between habitual use of vitamin D supplements and risk of COVID-19 infection, and assess whether such an association differed according to the different levels of circulating and genetically predicted vitamin D.
This study included 8297 adults who have records of COVID-19 test results from UK Biobank (from 16 March 2020 to 29 June 2020). The use of vitamin D supplements, circulating vitamin D levels, and main covariates were measured at baseline (2006–2010). Genetically predicted vitamin D levels were evaluated by genetic risk score.
After adjustment for covariates, the habitual use of vitamin D supplements was significantly associated with a 34% lower risk of COVID-19 infection (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.45–0.97; P = 0.034). Circulating vitamin D levels at baseline or genetically predicted vitamin D levels were not associated with the risk of COVID-19 infection. The association between the use of vitamin D supplements and the risk of COVID-19 infection did not vary according to the different levels of circulating or genetically predicted vitamin D (P-interactions = 0.75 and 0.74, respectively).
Our findings suggest that habitual use of vitamin D supplements is related to a lower risk of COVID-19 infection, although we cannot rule out the possibility that the inverse association is due to residual confounding or selection bias. Further clinical trials are needed to verify these results.
Source: Hao Ma, Tao Zhou, Yoriko Heianza, Lu Qi | Oxford Academic